The External Ear

Outer Ear

The visible part of the ear is the outer ear. In spoken language the word "ear" means pinna or auricle. This anatomic component of the ear is not critical for hearing and is not involved in any known mechanism of tinnitus. The distal part of the ear does help to direct sound, but the ear canal is more important.

Ear Canal

Ear wax (cerumen) is produced by glands in the skin of the outer distal part of the ear canal. When the wax blocks the canal it may cause tinnitus. This outer ear canal skin covers the cartilage; the thinner skin of the deep canal lies on the bone of the skull.

Ear Drum

The thicker part of the skin in the ear canal is excreting cerumen and has hairs. The border of the outer ear is the external layer of the tympanic membrane. The tympanic membrane is called also the ear drum.
The pinna assists to canalize sound via the external ear canal to the proximal part of the canal and deliver the sound energy to the tympanic membrane (eardrum). The gross anatomy of the auricle includes one layer of yellow fibro cartilage with a complicated lift on the frontal, curved inwards side and a fairly smooth configuration on the back, curved outwards side.

The "biological processors"

Human beings localize sound stimuli within the central nervous system, by comparing arrival-time differences and loudness from every ear, that are assisted by brain "biological processors" that are connected to both ears.

Ear Plug and Tinnitus

The specialists of Otolaryngology are trying to find an ear plug of cerumen in the external ear of the tinnitus or Meniere disease patient with acute onset. In many cases the procedure of cleaning the ear canal helps to decrease the sound of tinnitus, or even to eliminate it completely.

The Mechanism

It is unknown what is the mechanism: psychological or biological. The Rambam (see abstract) wrote about ear drops for the relive or cure of tinnitus. A skin of "Etrog" (with special specifications) is taken, boiled in Olive oil, cooled, and then inserted to the ear.







































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